A Map of North America, denoting the boundaries of the Yearly Meetings of Friends and the locations of the various indian tribes
By: James Bowden and H. Clark
Date: 1844 (published) London, England
Dimensions: 18.25 x 21 inches (46.35 x 53.4 cm)
A superb historical map detailing the geographic dispersal and estimated population of Native American tribes throughout the United States during the mid-19th century, and the era of Manifest Destiny.
The map was issued as part of "Some Account of the Conduct of the Religious Society of Friends Towards the Indian Tribes in the Settlement of the Colonies of East and West Jersey and Pennsylvania" (not included), which was published by the Religious Society of Friends, or Quakers as they are more commonly known. The motivation behind the map was an informational piece for the Aborigines' Committee of the Meetings of Sufferings in London, 1844. The Quakers held these meetings annually, where they would focus on the injustices suffered by aboriginal peoples throughout the world.
East of the Mississippi, the map is color-coded by regions for yearly meetings between natives and the designated Indian affairs agents. West of the Mississippi, the map is color-coded by nations that had been removed (many by force) from their ancestral lands in the east. Some of these tribes include the Algonquins, Creeks, Cherokee, Osages, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Iroquois, to name a few. While many other tribes are noted in the west, none are included from what would become the American Southwest with exception to the Comanche tribe that had become infamous for their raids on the Spanish, Mexicans, and ultimately, the Texans. A list of tables in the lower right provides estimated population statistics for many of the tribes noted throughout the map.
Cartographically the map is very intriguing. It was published while John C. Fremont was conducting his 2nd expedition of the western frontier, one year before Texas was admitted into the Union as is shown as a republic in its largest form, and just two years prior to the start of the Mexican-American War (1846-48). Much of Upper California is noted as "Unexplored Territory," a the Mormon Settlement along Great Salt Lake had yet to be discovered. In its general region is a lake named Timpanogos, which is noted at "doubtful." In the present-day Midwest, Chicago is located within the Northwest Territory, just above the state of Indiana. The Wisconsin and Minnesota territories have yet to be established.
With regards to the northern border between the United States and British Dominions of Canada, the map is somewhat outdated as it shows the disputed border of northern Maine which was settled in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842. Additionally, an undefined border between the Oregon Territory and New Caldonia which was settled in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, that established the 49th parallel as the official boundary. Much more cartographic information is provided throughout Canada, including the approximate locations of some of the northern-most tribes and Alaska is depicted as Russian America.
Condition: This map is in A condition, issued folded, now flattened for framing purposes. Some paper toning can be found in the right upper and lower corners which is common for these maps and not really considered a condition issue.
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