Mappa de los Estados Unidos de Mejico, segun lo organazido y definido por las varias actas del Congreso de dicha Republica y construido por las mejores autoridades.
By: White, Gallaher, & White
Date:1828 (dated ) New York
Dimensions: 41 x 29 inches (104 x 71 cm)
A rare first edition (in Spanish) of what would be known as the "Treaty Map of the Mexican-American War." This map would prove to be an instrumental piece to the Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo and is the first in a series of maps to define the border between Mexico and the United States of America.
This fascinating map presents all of Mexico when it was at it's greatest size. Much of the land north and to the west of the Rio Grande however would fall under conflict between the Texans and Unites States in the coming decades, ultimately reducing the size of Mexico by nearly half. The War of Texas Independence, would be fought from October 1835 to April 1836. and the Mexican-American War would follow just a decade later from April 25, 1846 to February 2, 1848. A later reprinting of this map (with some notable changes) by John Distrunell would be utilized during the Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo, signed on February 2, 1848, ending the Mexican-American War. This map is considered among collectors and scholars as the first of a series of maps that would ultimately define the border between Mexico and the United States.
Cartography of the Map
Early routes of trade, commerce, and emigration such as the Santa Fe Trail, and El Camino Real are delineated within the map, connecting both Mexico City, and the western-most outpost of the United States (Fort Osage) to the historic and pivotal town of Santa Fe. Locations of numerous Native American tribes are found throughout the map, including the Apaches and Navajos, both of which had been at war with first the Spanish Conquistadores, and then the Mexicans for centuries.
Texas is shown in its pre-revolution state at a time when there were only a few thousand Americans that had settled there. After the Mexican Revolution of 1824, the Mexican government needed settlers to protect their people from Kiowa and Comanche raids, and they offered liberal land grants to anyone who would become citizens and accept the Catholic faith. Eventually, American immigrants in Texas outnumbered the Mexicans and a series of events led to the Texan Revolution. In this map, the only town of significance is San Antonio.
The cartography of "Alta California" features numerous cartographic errors including the overall delineation of the coastline, and two large rivers that appear to be sourced from major inland lakes, one of which is in the place of the Great Salt Lake. There is no representation of the Sierra Nevada Mountains or the Grand Canyon, nor would there be until the latter half of the 19th Century.
The lower left portions of the map features an extensive table of distances, a table of statistics that includes the population, size (in square miles) and a geographical description of each state in Mexico. Just below these tables is an inset map titled "Carta de los Caminos &c. Desde Vera Cruz y Alvarado a Mejico," which as the title suggests, shows the major roads between Mexico City and Vera Cruz on the gulf coast. This is a centuries-old network of roads dating back to and arguably before the arrival of Hernán Cortés in 1521.
History of the Map and its Printing
This rare map of Mexico and what would become much of the southwestern United States was created as almost a complete replication of Tanners Map of Mexico from 1826. Aside from the difference that this map was done in Spanish, everything in it down to the notes detailing the geographic nature of the land is copied verbatim by White, Gallagher, and White. John Distrunell would later acquire the plates from this map and re-issue them from 1846 - 1858 with some omissions of erroneous cartography, updated borders including the Republic of Texas, and a few notes within Texas and Indian Territory.
Condition: This map is in A condition presenting original hand color. Minor splits and edge tears have been professionally repaired on the verso.