Map Maker Biography: Giacomo Gastaldi (1500 – 1566)

Universale descrittione di tutta la terra conosciuta fin qui - Source: Library of Congress

Image Source: Library of Congress

Giacomo Gastaldi

Giacomo Gastaldi (1500 – 1566) was an important Italian cartographer, astronomer and engineer of the 16th century. He began his career as an engineer and served the Venetian Republic in that capacity until about 1544, at which time he turned his attention primarily to mapmaking.  His work represents several important turning points in the evolution of modern cartography, and he is generally considered the most important of his contemporaries. He was among the early modern cartographers to use copperplate rather than woodcut, thus contributing to the abandonment of woodcut for cartographic purposes.

He was so popular and respected that Pope Pius IV granted him copyright protection for his works for fifteen years, and in Venice he was asked to decorate the Doge’s Palace with frescoes of his maps of Africa and Asia. Gastaldi was known to have always sought the most up to date information from the most recent explorers’ reports for his maps, but interestingly, he also used Marco Polo’s Travels for his maps of those regions visited and/or described by the famous traveler.

His map of Asia use names from Portolans along the coast and for coastal islands and from reports of early voyages sponsored by Portugal and Spain. But in the interior of Asia, from Mesopotamia to the Pacific, are to be found almost all the names used in The Travels. According to Baron A. E. Nordenskjöld, author of The Influence of the 'Travels of Marco Polo' on Jacobo Gastaldi's Maps of Asia’, a comparison of Gastaldi’s place names compared with those attributed to Marco Polo shows the borrowings to be extensive.

It might be expected that The Travels would have exercised considerable influence on the development of European cartography but this was not the case, and only a few names mentioned in the opus are to be found in maps of the 14th – 16th centuries, until Gastaldi began to use them in the mid-sixteenth century in his La Discrittione dell prima parte dell'Asia. Gastaldi’s source for The Travels was the work Navigationi et Viaggi  published by Giovanni Battista Ramusio in the 1550’s.

Italian cartographers of Gastaldi’s time, mostly active in Rome and Venice, were responsible for the production of the first widely distributed modern maps of all parts of the World (although primarily focusing on Italy). Gastaldi’s maps of regions which previously had not been mapped are highly sought after today, as they present some of the first (known) western cartographic representations of them.

The maps were issued separately, but were also assembled by both booksellers and early owners into bound composite atlases. These maps have come to be known as Lafreri maps, because in the 1570s, the bookseller and publisher Antonio Lafreri of Rome produced such composite atlases, in which he included a title page with his name as the publisher. While there are a number of surviving examples of these Lafreri Atlases in institutions, these compilations are very rare and no two examples have identical contents. At the present time a limited few of these atlases are on the market, presenting a rare opportunity to collectors. Gastaldi’s contribution to cartography cannot be overstated.

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